By Mizuho Yabushita
The subject of this thesis is catalytic conversion of non-food, ample, and renewable biomass reminiscent of cellulose and chitin to chemical substances. In biorefinery, chemical transformation of polymers to beneficial compounds has attracted around the globe curiosity for development sustainable societies. First, the present state of affairs of this sizzling examine sector has been summarized good within the normal creation of the thesis, which is helping readers to get to grips with this subject. subsequent, the writer explains high-yielding construction of glucose from cellulose through the use of an alkali-activated carbon as a catalyst, leading to a yield of glucose as excessive as 88%, that is one of many optimum yields ever stated. The characterization of carbon fabrics has indicated that susceptible acid websites at the catalyst advertise the response, that is markedly assorted from stated catalytic platforms that require robust acids. additionally, the 1st catalytic transformation of chitin with retention of N-acetyl teams has been constructed. the combo of mechanocatalytic hydrolysis and thermal solvolysis allows the creation of N-acetylated monomers in stable yields of as much as 70%. The catalytic structures verified during this thesis are specific within the fields of either chemistry and chemical engineering, and their excessive efficiencies can give a contribution to eco-friendly and sustainable chemistry sooner or later. in the meantime, mechanistic experiences in line with characterization, thermodynamics, kinetics, and version reactions have additionally been played to bare the jobs of catalysts in the course of the reactions. the consequences may be worthy for readers to layout and improve new catalysts and response systems.
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Extra resources for A Study on Catalytic Conversion of Non-Food Biomass into Chemicals: Fusion of Chemical Sciences and Engineering
Catal Sci Technol 2(5):869–883 9. Chen J-K, Shen C-R, Liu C-L (2010) N-Acetylglucosamine: production and applications. Mar Drugs 8(9):2493–2516 10. Chen X, Yan N (2014) Novel catalytic systems to convert chitin and lignin into valuable chemicals. Catal Surv Asia 18(4):164–176 11. McKendry P (2002) Energy production from biomass (part 1): overview of biomass. Bioresour Technol 83(1):37–46 12. Mosier N, Wyman C, Dale B, Elander R, Lee YY, Holtzapple M, Ladisch M (2005) Features of promising technologies for pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass.
All the hydrolytic hydrogenation reactions described above require H2 pressure higher than 2 MPa. Fukuoka et al. 8 MPa . In this case, sorbitol and mannitol yields were 30 and 8 %, respectively (entry 45). 2 Cellulose 25 Fig. 20 Hydrolytic transfer-hydrogenation of cellulose to sorbitol using 2-propanol as a hydrogen source Fig. 9 MPa of H2 pressure by optimizing pretreatment and reaction conditions (entry 46) . 7 MPa (entry 47) . The hydrolytic transfer-hydrogenation of cellulose to sorbitol (Fig.
Subsequently, the chemical transformations of cellulose and chitin using catalysts and their remaining issues are discussed. Then, the goal of this thesis work is stated. 2 Chapter 2: Hydrolysis of Cellulose to Glucose Using Carbon Catalysts The objective in this chapter is high-yielding production of glucose from cellulose using carbon catalysts. Alkali-activated carbons show signiﬁcantly high catalytic activity for the hydrolysis of cellulose. A new pretreatment method, named mix-milling, is developed to drastically accelerate the hydrolysis of cellulose by the carbons, resulting in one of the highest yields of glucose in any methods.
A Study on Catalytic Conversion of Non-Food Biomass into Chemicals: Fusion of Chemical Sciences and Engineering by Mizuho Yabushita